global information system on pyraloidea

PYRALIDAE

Pyralidae contain about 5,900 species classified into 1,077 genera.

The Chrysauginae comprise about 398 species occurring predominantly in the Neotropical region. Larvae can be seed, fruit, stem and root borers, and leaf rollers and tiers. Some are myrmecophilous. The adults of Cryptoses, Bradypodicola and Bradypophila live in the fur of sloths and their larvae develop in sloth dung. Larvae of other species have been found feeding on wasp nests and on spines of Automeris spp. (Saturniidae) caterpillars. Most larvae have a sclerotised ring around SD1 of the metathorax.
References. Dyar 1908; Jordan 1926; Pastrana 1953; Waage & Montgomery 1976; Bradley 1982; Solis & Mitter 1992.  

The Epipaschiinae comprise 705 described species in the tropical and temperate regions, except Europe. Larvae are leaf rollers, leaf tiers or leaf miners. A few species are minor pests of mahagonies, avocado, and corn (Zea mays). Males of many species have a conspicuous scaled projection from the scape of the antennae. Epipaschiinae are supported as a monophyletic group by three characters of the males: (1) an always upturned and pointed third segment of the labial palpi, (2) a ventrally curved phallobase of the male which usually extends beyond the ductus ejaculatorius, and (3) the weakly sclerotised tegumen.

References. Solis 1992, 1993; Solis & Mitter 1992.

The Galleriinae comprise 258 species worldwide. Larvae of some species, such as Corcyra cephalonica (rice moth) feed on dry vegetable matter, while the larvae of other species are known to live in hymenopteran nests feeding on combs and animal debris (e.g. Galleria mellonella, the wax moth). Sound production by the tegulae of adult males has been studied for purposes of monitoring and control of pest species. The males of galleriine moths have no gnathos, the pupae have a prominent median ridge on the thorax and abdomen dorsally, and most larvae have a sclerotised ring around SD1 of A1.

References. Mosher 1916; Hasenfuss 1960; Whalley 1964; Spangler 1988; Solis & Mitter 1992.

The Phycitinae (= Anerastiinae, Peoriinae) are probably the most difficult group of Pyraloidea in terms of identification and classification. They comprise 656 genera and about 3450 species. Phycitines occur throughout the world. Their larvae are mostly leaf rollers, but some are inquilines in galls, seed feeders, or predators of Homoptera. There is strong evidence that the Phycitinae are monophyletic: (1) The larva has a sclerotised area encircling the base of seta SD1 on the mesothorax, and (2) the female frenulum is composed of multiple acanthae into one bristle as in males.

References. Hasenfuss 1960; Whalley 1970; Solis & Mitter 1992.

The Pyralinae (= Endotrichinae, Hypotiinae) comprise 134 genera and more than 1100 species worldwide. Most species occur in Asia and Africa. The meal moth (Pyralis farinalis) is a cosmopolitan pest of stored food products. Other species are leaf feeders and the larvae of Pyralis manihotalis  has been reared from bat guano. With the exception of Cardamyla and Embryoglossa, all pyraline females have a short ductus bursae with the corpus bursae barely extending cephalad beyond segment 7.

References. Solis & Mitter 1992.

 

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Last updated: October 08, 2012